Chapter 5: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Animal Production Systems. In Quantifying

This chapter provides guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with entity‐level fluxes from animal production systems


Powers W, Auvermann B, Cole A, Gooch C, et al.
U.S. Department of Agriculture 2014 Chapter

Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows: Accounting Techniques

Sustainable Dairy 2017 Fact Sheet

Mitigation of Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows

Enteric methane is a major contributor to global and U.S. agricultural GHG emissions and can represent 50% of a dairy farm’s GHG emissions. This fact sheet describes nutrition, feed, and management strategies to reduce methane emissions.


Sustainable Dairy 2017 Fact Sheet

Got pasture? How grazing intensity affects the environmental impacts of dairy systems

A Wisconsin dairy farm was modeled to evaluate greenhouse gas emissions, net energy intensity, and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process.


Aguirre-Villegas HA, Passos-Fonseca TH, Reinemann DJ, and Larson RA
J. Dairy Sci. 2017 Journal Article

Decreasing enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a methane inhibitor on enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows. The experiment demonstrated that, under industry-relevant conditions, the inhibitor persistently decreased by 30% enteric methane emissions, without negatively affecting animal productivity.


Hristov, et. al.
PNAS 2015 Publication

Enteric methane in dairy cattle production Quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions

Discusses opportunities to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock.


Knapp, et. al.
J. Dairy Sci. 2014 Fact Sheet