Evaluating GHG emissions from dairy manure management practices using survey data and lifecycle tool

Conducts a survey of dairy farms in Wisconsin and analyzes their manure management practices based on farm size and their related GHG, ammonia emissions and energy consumption


Aguirre-Villegas HA and Larson RA
Journal of Cleaner Production 2017 Journal Article

Pasture diversification to combat climate change impacts on grazing dairy production

Four cool-season grass species and two legumes were evaluated under both current and future climate scenarios to identify the best pasture composition for a representative grazing dairy farm in Michigan in order to reduce the impacts of climate change on production.


Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2017 Journal Article

Life Cycle and Economic Assessment of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Dairy Manure and Food Waste

A comprehensive life cycle and financial analysis shows anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and food wastes is a preferable solution for waste management and bioenergy production in terms of environmental and economic performance when compared to a control system that anaerobically digests dairy manure but landfills food wastes.


Industrial Biotechnology 2015 Journal Article

Carbon and water footprint of U.S. milk, from farm to table

The Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy with support from the Dairy Research Institute has begun a rigorous, innovative, life cycle assessment-based program to study and reduce the environmental footprint of the U.S. dairy industry.


Miller, G.D. and Y. Wang
International Dairy Journal 2013 Journal Article

Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA

A life cycle assessment was conducted to determine a baseline for environmental impacts of cheddar and mozzarella cheese consumption. Product loss/waste, as well as consumer transport and storage, is included. The study scope was from cradle-to-grave with particular emphasis on unit operations under the control of typical cheese-processing plants.


Kim Daesoo, Greg Thoma et al.
Int J Life Cycle Assess 2013 Journal Article

Life cycle environmental assessment of yogurt production and consumption in the USA

Estimated impacts in various unit processes (milk production, processing, packaging, transport, retail, and consumption) including product losses at each stage are reported and discussed.


Y. Wang, G. Thoma, D. Kim and J. Burek
Journal of Animal Science Dairy Foods Division Symposium: Advances in Sustainability within the Dairy Processing Industry 2016 Journal Article

Spatial Variability and Uncertainty of Water Use Impacts from U.S. Feed and Milk Production

This paper addresses water use impacts of agriculture, developing a spatially explicit approach tracing the location of water use and water scarcity related to feed production, transport, and livestock, tracking uncertainties and illustrating the approach with a case study on dairy production in the United States. This approach was developed as a step to bring spatially variable production and impacts into a process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) context.


Andrew D. Henderson, Olivier Jolliet et al.
Environmental Science and Technology 2017 Journal Article

Environmental/Ecological Impact of the Dairy Sector

A literature review on dairy products for an inventory of key issues.


International Dairy Federation Brussels, Belgium 2009 Report

System expansion and allocation in life cycle assessment of milk and beef production

Energy statistics are reported to monitor changes in energy production and use, inform debate, and provide a wider understanding of energy.


Cederberg, C., and M. Stadig
International JEnergy Agency 2017 Report

Greenhouse gas emissions from milk production and consumption in the United States A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment circa 2008

This article presents a cradle-to-grave analysis of the United States fluid milk supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are accounted from fertilizer production through consumption and disposal of milk packaging.


Thoma, et. al.
International Dairy Journal 2012 Publication

LCA of bioenergy chains in Piedmont (Italy) A case study to support public decision makers towards sustainability

Given the booming of bioenergy plants under construction in Piedmont, in Northern Italy, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used in order to assist public decision-makers during the evaluation of new bioenergy projects.


Blengini, et. al.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2011 Publication

Green cheese Partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy productionbioenergy systems

Evaluating the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.


Aguirre-Villegas, HA, Passos-Fonseca TH, Reinemann DJ, Armentano LE, et al.
J. Dairy Sci. 2015 Journal Article

Land, irrigation water, GHG, and reactive N burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the U.S.

Quantifying the land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal based categories in the US diet.


Eshel, et. al.
PNAS 2014 Publication

Carbon footprint of milk production LCA method used to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.


O'Brien, et. al.
J. Dairy Sci. 2014 Publication

U.S. Dairy’s Environmental Footprint A summary of findings, 2008-2012

Dairy’s environmental footprint is being measured by independent researchers on behalf of the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy®, which was established by dairy producers. This report summarizes the body of environmental research conducted from 2008 to 2012.


Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy
2013 Publication

Report of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools for Agriculture and Forestry Sectors Interim report to USDA under Contract No. GS23F8182H

This report provides an overview of publically accessible tools (calculators, protocols, guidelines and models) for quantifying GHG emissions/offsets from agricultural and forestry activities, with a focus on farm/entity/project-level GHG accounting tools. Information contained in this report draws upon publically available information obtained through an extensive literature and web-search, as well as from direct contact with experts.


Denef, et. al.
2012 Publication

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies


Hertwich et. al.
2014 Publication