Resource Database

Filterable Collection of Educational Bulletins and Fact Sheets

94 matching resources were found.

Johnson et al.
Cornell Extension

N Basics - the N cycle

N, crops and the environment; N cycle; fixation; mineralization; nitrification; denitrification; volatilization; immovilization; leaching; crop uptake

Virginia Tech

Diet strategies to reduce amounts of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in dairy rations

Presents strategies to balance rations and group and feed animals according to their nutrient needs.

Steinke and Snapp
Michigan State

Soil management

Presents ways of managing the soil to reduce CO2 and N2O.

USDA / UW Madison

N emissions from dairy farms

Explains how Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) can be used to reduce nitrogen emissions from dairy farms. Present a great graphic description of the N cycle in the cow

USDA / UW Madison

MUN can track ammonia emissions on dairy farms

Explains how MUN can be use to measure the extend of ammonia emissions that escape into the environment in dairy production facilities

USDA / UW Madison

Ammonia emissions in dairy farms and fields

Presents strategies to reduce ammonia emissions in manure and from the soil after manure application

Matt Ruark
UW Madison

Cover crops

Present some considerations to use or not cover crops including trapping nitrate and getting N back

Hoorman et al.
Ohio State

Tillage and cover crops

Presents the benefits of using cover crops to migrate to a no-till system, the nitrogen recycling process that takes place

Iowa State

N2O emissions from crops

Provides findings that soybean crops reduce field emissions of nitrous oxide

Lleleji et al

Anaerobic digestion

Presents the basics of AD including the process, the paramenters of different feedstocks, technologies, benefits of AD

Harrison et al

Compost quality

Presents some of the factors that can be management by the farmer and that affect compost quality (e.g. type of equipment, frequency of turning, and composting method)

Global methane initiative

Global methane emissions

Presents sources of CH4 emissions and how do they contribute to total GHG emissions. Also, presents some projections and mitigation strategies for each sector

University of Minnesota

Shifting climate and manure management

Presents smarter manure management strategies to respond to a changing climate (more precipitations in the Midwest)

Millar et al
Michigan State

N2O emissions from field crops

Presents a general description of N2O and four main factors to help reduce N2O emissions from field crops: N application rate, fertilizer type, timing of application, placement.

Penn State

Lowered protein diets to reduce nitrogen losses

Presents a description of how low can we go on lowered protein content diets without affecting milk production in order to improve nitrogen efficiency and reduce nitrogen losses from manure.

Penn State

Nitrogen, ammonia emissions and the dairy cow

Explains how nitrogen fed to cows contributes to ammonia emissions and explores feeding strategies to reduce excess nitrogen in the diet.

UW Madison

Nitrogen cycle

Present the basics of N fixation, reactions in the soil, N loss mechanisms, sources of N, and environmental effects

Sundermeier et al
Ohio State

Cover crops

Presents the basic description of cover crops

Hoorman et al.
Ohio State

cover crops rotations

Presents information about specific attributes of different cover crops grown after each cash crop and for specific purposes (e.g. for nitrogen)


Cover crops basics

This publication is an introduction to cover crops — it describes cover crop benefits, how to select appropriate covers, common seeding methods, and how to terminate them

Iowa State

Cover crops

Present a general description of the role of cover crops in nutrient recycling

Iowa State


Describes the advantages and disadvantages of tillage (including N loss)

Iowa State

N cycle

Provides a basic description and diagran of the N cycle in soils (oriented mainly to crops)

Cornell Extension

The N Cycle

Presents the N cycle in an interactive way and the major conversion processes: fixation, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, and immobilization. Also presents nitrate leaching and crop uptake

Cornell Extension

Calculating N efficiency

Presents a method to calculate N requirements for corn (including losses and N efficiencies)

Cornell Extension

Estimating manure N availability

Presents the basics to estimate manure N availability including: different types of manure N, application timing and method, N available from manure

Cornell Extension

Nitrogen management on dairy farms

Presents background information and management guidelines for use of N including: crop and soil management, feed storage, herd N management, and manure storage N management

Sustainable Dairy

Methane Emissions from Dairy Cattle

Sustainable Dairy

Dairy Anaerobic Digestion Systems

Sustainable Dairy

Solid-Liquid Separation of Manure

Hertwich et. al.

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies

Denef, et. al.

Report of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools for Agriculture and Forestry Sectors

This report provides an overview of publically accessible tools (calculators, protocols, guidelines and models) for quantifying GHG emissions/offsets from agricultural and forestry activities, with a focus on farm/entity/project-level GHG accounting tools. Information contained in this report draws upon publically available information obtained through an extensive literature and web-search, as well as from direct contact with experts.

Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy

U.S. Dairy’s Environmental Footprint

Dairy’s environmental footprint is being measured by independent researchers on behalf of the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy®, which was established by dairy producers. This report summarizes the body of environmental research conducted from 2008 to 2012.

Knapp, et. al.
J. Dairy Sci.

Enteric methane in dairy cattle production

Discusses opportunities to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock.

O'Brien, et. al.
J. Dairy Sci.

Carbon footprint of milk production

A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

Eshel, et. al.

Land, irrigation water, GHG, and reactive N burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the U.S.

Quantifying the land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal based categories in the US diet.

Collier, SM, Ruark MD, Naber MR, Andraski TW et al.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.

Apparent Stability and Subtle Change in Surface and Subsurface Soil Carbon and Nitrogen under a Long

Uncertainty exists regarding the depth and extent to which agricultural practices affect soil properties, in particular soil organic C (SOC). In this study we examined the impact of 53 years of continuous corn receiving varying rates of inorganic N fertilizer with complete stover return on soil properties including SOC, total N, and bulk density (BD) to a depth of 1 meter.

Powlson, et. al.
Nature Climate Change

No-till climate mitigation

Aguirre-Villegas, et. al.

From waste-to-worth: energy, emissions, and nutrient implications of manure processing pathways

Four manure processing pathways are evaluated to provide a system-level understanding of their impacts on different sustainability indicators. In particular we look at how solid-liquid separation, anaerobic digestion, and AD+SLS affect depletion of fossil fuels, nutrient balances, global warming potential, and ammonia emissions when compared to the base-case pathway of direct land application.

Aguirre-Villegas, et. al.

From waste-to-worth: energy, emissions, and nutrient implications of manure processing pathways

Four manure processing pathways are evaluated to provide a system-level understanding of their impacts on different sustainability indicators. In particular we look at how solid-liquid separation, anaerobic digestion, and AD+SLS affect depletion of fossil fuels, nutrient balances, global warming potential, and ammonia emissions when compared to the base-case pathway of direct land application.

Hristov, et. al.

Decreasing enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a methane inhibitor on enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows. The experiment demonstrated that, under industry-relevant conditions, the inhibitor persistently decreased by 30% enteric methane emissions, without negatively affecting animal productivity.

Aguirre-Villegas, HA, Passos-Fonseca TH, Reinemann DJ, Armentano LE, et al.
J. Dairy Sci.

Green cheese

Evaluating the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Blengini, et. al.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling

LCA of bioenergy chains in Piedmont (Italy)

Given the booming of bioenergy plants under construction in Piedmont, in Northern Italy, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used in order to assist public decision-makers during the evaluation of new bioenergy projects.

Thoma, et. al.
International Dairy Journal

Greenhouse gas emissions from milk production and consumption in the United States

This article presents a cradle-to-grave analysis of the United States fluid milk supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are accounted from fertilizer production through consumption and disposal of milk packaging.

Richer, et. al.
Waste to Worth

Replacing Commercial Sidedress Nitrogen with Liquid Livestock Manure on Emerged Corn

Livestock producers can more fully utilize the nutrients in livestock manure to reduce purchased fertilizer costs if they can apply manure when crops need the nutrients.

Aguirre-Villegas HA, Passos-Fonseca TH, Reinemann DJ, and Larson RA
J. Dairy Sci.

Got pasture? How grazing intensity affects the environmental impacts of dairy systems

A Wisconsin dairy farm was modeled to evaluate greenhouse gas emissions, net energy intensity, and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process.

Sustainable Dairy

Mitigation of Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows

Enteric methane is a major contributor to global and U.S. agricultural GHG emissions and can represent 50% of a dairy farm’s GHG emissions. This fact sheet describes nutrition, feed, and management strategies to reduce methane emissions.

Sustainable Dairy

Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Manure Management Systems

Describes manure storage, processing, and land application strategies that may decrease dairy farm greenhouse gas emissions.

Sustainable Dairy

Reducing Risks from Manure Storage Agitation Gases

Discusses risks to human and animal health related to hazardous manure gases from outdoor or confined space manure storages on dairy farms and recommended safety practices.

Penn State University

Penn State Dairy Production and Management Online Course

In this free eight-week online course, you will gain a broad and comprehensive understanding of all aspects of dairy management such as genetics, nutrition, reproduction, animal health, farm economics, and sustainability of dairy production systems. There’s something here for everyone whether you are just looking for the basics or have years of experience in the dairy industry.

Cederberg, C., and M. Stadig
International JEnergy Agency

System expansion and allocation in life cycle assessment of milk and beef production

Energy statistics are reported to monitor changes in energy production and use, inform debate, and provide a wider understanding of energy.

International Dairy Federation

Environmental/Ecological Impact of the Dairy Sector

A literature review on dairy products for an inventory of key issues.

Andrew D. Henderson, Olivier Jolliet et al.
Environmental Science and Technology

Spatial Variability and Uncertainty of Water Use Impacts from U.S. Feed and Milk Production

This paper addresses water use impacts of agriculture, developing a spatially explicit approach tracing the location of water use and water scarcity related to feed production, transport, and livestock, tracking uncertainties and illustrating the approach with a case study on dairy production in the United States. This approach was developed as a step to bring spatially variable production and impacts into a process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) context.

Y. Wang, G. Thoma, D. Kim and J. Burek
Journal of Animal Science

Life cycle environmental assessment of yogurt production and consumption in the USA

Estimated impacts in various unit processes (milk production, processing, packaging, transport, retail, and consumption) including product losses at each stage are reported and discussed.

Kim Daesoo, Greg Thoma et al.
Int J Life Cycle Assess

Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA

A life cycle assessment was conducted to determine a baseline for environmental impacts of cheddar and mozzarella cheese consumption. Product loss/waste, as well as consumer transport and storage, is included. The study scope was from cradle-to-grave with particular emphasis on unit operations under the control of typical cheese-processing plants.

Miller, G.D. and Y. Wang
International Dairy Journal

Carbon and water footprint of U.S. milk, from farm to table

The Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy with support from the Dairy Research Institute has begun a rigorous, innovative, life cycle assessment-based program to study and reduce the environmental footprint of the U.S. dairy industry.

Daniel H. Smith and Matt Ruark
Nutrient and Pest Management Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Considerations for 2017 Cover Crop Interseeding

Cover crop establishment following wheat, silage corn, and canning crops can be relatively easy. Corn and soybean production practices allow for a short window for cover crop establishment in the fall and this may not be enough time for some cover crop species to establish and provide agronomic benefits.

Climate Risk Management

Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector.

Industrial Biotechnology

Life Cycle and Economic Assessment of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Dairy Manure and Food Waste

A comprehensive life cycle and financial analysis shows anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and food wastes is a preferable solution for waste management and bioenergy production in terms of environmental and economic performance when compared to a control system that anaerobically digests dairy manure but landfills food wastes.

Agricultural Systems

Resource use and economic impacts in the transition from small confinement to pasture-based dairies

Compares the farm performance and economic impacts of five representative dairy farms in Michigan transitioning from conventional confinement to seasonal- and pasture-based systems, and evaluates the potential for integration of an anaerobic digester in the confinement and seasonal pasture systems. Results show confinement systems had higher milk production per kilogram of feed, followed by the seasonal pasture and the annual pasture systems. But the annual pasture-based system had the greatest net economic return to management and unpaid factors followed by the seasonal pasture and confinement systems.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Pasture diversification to combat climate change impacts on grazing dairy production

Four cool-season grass species and two legumes were evaluated under both current and future climate scenarios to identify the best pasture composition for a representative grazing dairy farm in Michigan in order to reduce the impacts of climate change on production.

Sustainable Dairy

Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows: Accounting Techniques


Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator

Did you ever wonder what reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 1 million metric tons means in everyday terms? The greenhouse gas equivalencies calculator can help you understand just that, translating abstract measurements into concrete terms you can understand, such as the annual emissions from cars, households, or power plants. This calculator may be useful in communicating your greenhouse gas reduction strategy, reduction targets, or other initiatives aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Manure Agitation

Fact sheet describing the process, technologies, and emissions related to manure agitation.

Aguirre-Villegas HA and Larson RA
Journal of Cleaner Production

Evaluating GHG emissions from dairy manure management practices using survey data and lifecycle tool

Conducts a survey of dairy farms in Wisconsin and analyzes their manure management practices based on farm size and their related GHG, ammonia emissions and energy consumption

Cates AM and Ruark MD
Plant and Soil

Soil aggregate and particulate C and N under corn rotations: responses to management and correlation

This study describes the aggregate and particulate soil C and N in a productive Mollisol under three annual grain systems and investigates the correlations across rotations

Holly MA, Larson RA, Powell M, Ruark M, Aguirre-Villegas HA
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment

Evaluating GHG and ammonia emissions from digested and separated manure through storage and land app

This study keeps track of GHG and ammonia emissions of raw, separated, and digested dairy manure during storage and land application

Holly MA and Larson RA
Transactions of the ASABE

Effects of Manure Storage Additives on Manure Composition and Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions

This study explores the effects of manure additives, i.e., Pro-Act Biotech (Pro-Act), and biochar, on stored manure and quantifies their effects on manure solids, nitrogen losses, and GHG emissions in two separate trails

Aguirre-Villegas HA, Wattiaux, M, Larson R, Chase L, et al.
UW-Extension Learning Store

Dairy Cow Nitrogen Efficiency

This fact sheet highlights one of the main strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrogen loss through urine excretion by reducing the ingestion of crude protein, which must be done with caution to avoid underfeeding

Aguirre-Villegas HA, Larson RA, and Ruark MD
UW-Extension Learning Store

Managing Manure Nitrogen to Reduce Losses

This fact sheet describes different manure management strategies to minimize nitrogen loss while mitigating harmful emissions

Izaurralde CR, McGill WB, Williams JR, Jones CD et al.
Ecological Modeling

Simulating microbial denitrification with EPIC: Model description and evaluation

This paper describes a process-based microbial denitrification submodel implemented in EPIC and tests and tests its ability to reproduce experimental data exhibiting a non-linear response of N2O fluxes to incremental rates of N application

Powell JM, Barros T, Danes M, Aguerre M, et al.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components feed

This study quantifies soil N input incorporation into the major diet components fed to dairy cows, diet component N secretions in milk N and excretion in manure N constituents, and manure N recycled back through the feed supply

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Vermeylen F, Godwin GS, et al.
Soil Science Society of America Journal

Agro-environmental consequences of shifting from nitrogen- to phosphorus-based manure management of

This study evaluates the influence of a corn fertility management change from N-based applications of manure and separated dairy solids to a P-removal-based management of manure

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Godwin G, and Czymmek KJ
Agronomy for Sustainable Development

Shifting from N-based to P-based manure management maintains soil test phosphorus dynamics in a long

This study evaluates corn fertility management change from N-based applications of manure and compost to a P removal based management of manure and composted separated dairy solids on soil P dynamics over a 5-year corn and 5-year alfalfa rotation

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Godwin GS, and Czymmek KJ
Agronomy Journal

Under- or over-application of nitrogen impact corn yield, quality, soil, and environment

This study conducts a 5 year study to determine the impact of N fertilizer on corn silage yield, quality, soil properties, farm economics, and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE)

Veltman K. Jones CD, Gaillard R, Cela S, et al.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

Comparison of process-based models to quantify nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions associate

This study uses a whole-farm mass-balance approach to compare five process-based models in terms of predicted carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus flows and potential global warming impact

Powell JM, Vadas, PA, and Barford C
Ag Data Commons

Data from: Gas emissions from dairy barnyards

Database on GHG emissions from dairy barnyards

Sherman J, Jokela W, and Bardford C
Ag Data Commons

Data: Low-Disturbance Manure Incorporation


Sherman, Jessica; Jokela, William; Barford, Carol. 2017.
Ag Data Commons

Data: Manure application methods for alfalfa-grass


Cates AM, Ruark MD, Hedtcke JL, and Posner JL
Soil and Tillage Research

Long-term tillage, rotation and perennialization effects on particulate and aggregate soil organic

This study investigates how management varying in crop rotation, tillage intensity and organic management from 1990 to 2013 has affected particulate organic matter and aggregate carbon and nitrogen, and assess the relationship between these soil organic matter fractions and biomass carbon input

Collier SM, Dean AP, Oates LG, Ruark MD, et al.
Journal of Environmental Quality

Does plant biomass manipulation in static chambers affect nitrous oxide emissions from soils?

This study seeks to understand how or whether plant biomass manipulation affects N2O emissions estimated as part of chamber-based GHG measurements by examining the effects of biomass cutting vs. folding on N2O emissions in perennial switchgrass and alfalfa cropping systems.

Duval BD, Aguerre M, Wattiaux M, Vadas PA, et al.
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

Potential for Reducing On-Farm Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cows with Prolonged

This study explores the effects of long-term condensed tannin (Quebracho and chestnut extracts) addition to dairy cow diets on enteric methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia emissions from manure.

Holly M, Larson RA, Powell JM, Ruark MD, et al.
Ag Data Commons

Data: Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ammonia Emissions from Digested and Separated Manure


Powell JM and Vadas PA
Animal Production Science

Gas emissions from dairy barnyards

This study determines impacts of surfaces materials and dairy cattle corralling on gas flux from constructed barnyards

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Vermeylen F, Godwin GS, et al
Soil Science Society of America Journal

Soil properties under nitrogen- vs phosphorus-based manure and compost management of corn

This study evaluates the influence of a change from N-based applications of manure and compost (without incorporation) to P-removal-based management of manure (immediate tillage incorporation) and composted separated dairy solids on soil pH, soil organic matter and soil carbon

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings Q, Godwin GS and Czymmek KJ
Agronomy Journal

Nitrogen- vs. Phosphorus-Based Manure and Compost Management of Corn

This study evaluates the impact of a change from N-based application of manure and compost without incorporation to a P-based (crop-removal) management system with immediate incorporation of manure on corn silage yield and quality, and (ii) soil nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium

Collier SM, Ruark MD, Oates LG, Jokela WE, et al.
Journal of Visualized Experiments

Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Flux from Agricultural Soils Using Static Chamber

This paper discusses the most prevalent and easily implemented form of chamber-based techniques used to measure GHG emissions

Powell JM, Rotz CA, and Wattiaux MA
Journal of Environmental Quality

Potential use of milk urea nitrogen to abate atmospheric nitrogen emissions from Wisconsin dairy far

This study evaluates how associative changes in dietary crude protein, milk urea nitrogen, and urinary urea nitrogen affect atmospheric nitrogen emissions from dairy farms while discussing challenges and opportunities

Powers W, Auvermann B, Cole A, Gooch C, et al.
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Chapter 5: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Animal Production Systems. In Quantifying

Colon OG
Climatic Change

Assessing climate vulnerabilities and adaptive strategies for resilient beef and dairy operations in

This report addresses environmental modification, nutrition management, and genetic modification as adaptation strategies for dairy and beef cattle.

Halofsky JE, Peterson DL, and KW Marcinkowski
US Global Change Research Program

Climate Change Adaptation in United States Federal Natural Resource Science and Management Agencies

The Adaptation Science Interagency Working Group divulges information on USDA governing documents and how the USDA is adapting to climate change.

Hatfield J, Swanston C, Janowiak M, and Steele RF

USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hubs Vulnerability Assessment

This report provides an in-depth look at the vulnerability of the Midwest to the impacts of climate change as well as adaptation and mitigation strategies to combat these impacts.

Berman, A.
Journal of Dairy Science

Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates?

This review from the Journal of Dairy Science provides an analysis of the successful adaptation mechanisms of warm climate dairy cattle breeds.

Himanen SJ, Makinen H, Rimhanen K, and R Savikko
Agriculture, 6(3),34

Engaging Farmers in Climate Change Adaptation Planning

Scientists assess the benefits of intercropping as a climate change adaptation solution on the farm. Farmers in this study positively reflected on the adoptability and feasibility of intercropping as a management strategy.